Way back in July 1994, our solar system
was visited by a ‘string of pearls’ known as the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet,
this asterism stuck Jupiter with the force of thousands of our largest nuclear bombs and did it some 13 times in
the interval of several days. Since Jupiter is composed mainly of gases there were just a remnant ‘black eyes’ left
behind in its atmosphere, and these disappeared completely after several weeks.
Fig 1: Post impacts, polar orthographic mosaic of Jupiter in 2.0 micron
by the 5-m Hale Telescope at Mt. Palomar, July 1994 (Cornell University/Caltech/Air & Space Museum).
But, when this happens on Earth millions
of tons of rock, dust & water are thrown up through the atmosphere
in the case of large (> 8KM) asteroids; matter will even reach escape velocity. For the next several days that ejecta,
containing associated geochemical anomalies, iridium, gold, rhenium, arsenic, antimony and selenium, rock dust, broken
or brecciated rocks, shocked quartz, impactites or impact glass such as tektites, coesite, stishovite, a higher pressure
polymorph of quartz, meteoric oxides and water will rain down upon the planet depositing a world-wide dust layer.
In the K-T event this was anywhere from a meter to a centimeter thick layer, depending how far it was away from
the Chicxulub crater. The following months most vegetation will have died and a nuclear winter could last for several
This multiple event may have happened to earth. In 1980, a physicist Luis Alvarez and his geologist son Walter Alvarez,
suggested that the K-T event, the extinction of the dinosaurs and up to 80% of the other species, some 65 million years
ago may be due to the impact of the Chicxulub asteroid. That occurrence is pretty much accepted nowadays. Around
this time there were also several other very large craters produced.
The Boltysh Crater in the Ukraine and & the
Silverpit Crater off the eastern coast of England. Aged by radioactive
40Ar/39Ar decay products the Boltysh crater yielded an age of 65.17±0.64 million years, almost exactly the age of
Chicxulub crater in the Yucatan. All three of these craters exhibit impact glasses and ejecta of breccia.
Fig 2: Location of the 24 Km Boltysh
Crater in the Ukraine,
...near Kiev was discovered during oil prospecting.
This type of event has occurred several
times and there are at least 5 major ‘mass extinction events’ recorded
Earth's geologic history. Some scientists forecast that we are overdue for another visit from space. Besides the
obvious destruction of organic life there are major geological events that occur and mark these event for 100’s of
millions of years, if you are wise enough to read the signs.
Fig 3: Outcrop of strata crossing the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T)
...boundary at Brazos River, Falls County, Texas;
note pick and shovel for scale. By Alan Hildebrand, Geological
Survey of Canada 1992.
An event such as this leaves evidence of
shock metamorphism, which is manifested in the presence of shattercones,
circular structures with raised rims, an area of central uplift and sometimes a peak in the center.
A recently well studied crater at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, from only 35.5 million years ago was
found to have crushed together the water tables in area and faulted rock all the way down to the layer of
undifferentiated crystalline basement rock over a kilometer deep.
Fig 4: Location of the Chesapeake Crater and it's multiple faults, by Wylie Hoag, Ph. D.
The Yucatan or Chicxulub Crater, located
on the northwest coast of Yucatan, was discovered some 15 years ago and
determined that a 10-15-km object hit earth. The Chicxulub melt-rock is dated by 40Ar/39Ar ½ life at 65.07 +-0.1 Ma
and impactor created a 180 km crater. Exhibiting rock types of limestone, anhydrite (a calcium sulfate mineral),
a polymict breccia consisting of igneous-textured microcrystalline clasts with shocked quartz xenoliths, and vesicular
and ropy textured phyllosilicate clasts, which look like altered fragments of glass, both produced by shock melting.
Fig 5: A 0.32mm shocked quartz grain from intracrater breccia sample Y6 N14
... of the Chicxulub crater
Located ~50 km from the crater's
center and penetrated ~500 meters of impact melt and breccias at its base.
Impact is the only natural process known to produce shock waves of sufficient strength to cause deformation of
this type. (Taken in cross-polarized light by Alan Hildebrand). The breccia contains clasts of sedimentary carbonates,
evaporites, recrystallized sandstone, granitic gneisses and mica schists in a carbonate-rich matrix.
Other minerals found in meteorites
Metallic iron minerals make up the largest percentage of iron meteorites and stony iron meteorites & chondrites.
Kamacite--this is essentially metallic iron with up to 7.5% nickel
Taenite--this is iron with more than 25 percent nickel
Plessite--this is not a mineral, but is a mixture of fine-grained kamacite and taenite.
Troilite--FeS--Iron sulfide similar to the earthly mineral pyrrhotite.
Daubreelite--Fe++Cr2S4-- (Canyon Diablo), Cosby's Creek, Toluca, Cranbourne, and Mundrabilla (Mindat.org)
Cohenite--(Fe,Ni,Co)3C--is iron carbonate
Haxonite--(Fe,Ni,Co)23C6--is a cubic iron carbide
Phosphides-- compound of P with a less electronegative element(s)
Schreibersite and Rhabdite--(Fe,Ni)3P--Iron-nickel phosphide
Chromite--FeCrO4--This ore of chrome
Magnetite--Fe3O4--A common ore of iron
Corundum--Al2O3--same mineral as rubies & sapphires
Graphite--C--The common mineral of pencil lead
Diamond--C-- high temperature and pressure of meteorite impact,
sometimes form diamonds. Canyon Diablo meteorites have some.
Lonsdaleite--C--A hexagonal polymorph of diamond (diamond is cubic).
Pyroxenes-- found particularly chondrites and achondrites. The following gradually decreases in magnesium and increases iron content:
Enstatite-- Mg2Si2O6--The end member--the one highest in magnesium.
Bronzite-- (Mg,Fe)SiO3--more iron than enstatite and more magnesium than hypersthene.
Hypersthene-- (Mg,Fe)SiO3--mineral similar to bronzite in many ways, but having more iron
Orthoferrosilite--FeSiO3--This is the other orthopyroxene end member. It has the most iron and the least magnesium.
Clinopyroxenes-- (monoclinic crystal structure) diopside (CaMg(SiO3)2), hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6), augite ((Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)2O6)
and pigeonite ((Mg,Fe,Al)(Mg,Fe)Si2O6) are also found in meteorites particularly achondrites.
Olivine-- (Mg,Fe)2SiO4--formed at great depth, the Earth's mantle may have significant olivine. in some pallasites with forsterite
containing the most magnesium and fayalite having the most iron.
Feldspars--calcium, sodium. aluminum silicates
Phylosilicates-- or clays are found in some meteorites.
Minerals of the Canyon Diablo
The mineralogy of Canyon Diablo meteorites depends on whether they have been shocked by impact.
While all of the specimens were shocked to some degree, some specimens found around the crater
rim show very different mineralogy. The less altered mineralogy is typical of iron meteorites.
The important minerals are:
Kamacite--this iron nickel alloy makes
about 90 percent of specimens.
Taenite--the other iron nickel constituents taentie and plessite make up 1 to 4 percent of the material.
Schreibersite-- crystals occur as skeletal blades. This is a very hard mineral that will ruin a saw blade
unfortunate enough to be put to the task of cutting a Canyon Diablo.
Troilite--this iron sulfide occurs as nodules up to 50 mm across or as elongated lenses. Troilite may be
mixed with graphite, daubreelite, chromite, or base metal sulfides. Troilite-graphite masses may make
up about 8.5 % of specimens.
Graphite-- occurs as large bodies within iron or in separate masses.
Cohenite-- an iron carbide, is common. This mineral is even harder than Schreibersite.
Haxonite-- chromite and silicates are also found.
The specimens that were subjected to greater shock
show partial melting, recrystallization, neumann banding
and other deformation. Perhaps the most well-known shock effect is the transformation of graphite to diamond
and lonsdaleite. These take the from of tiny dark masses that become evident on sawing. A diamond blade will
move aside when it hits one of these.
Millerite is one of several minerals that is routinely
found (albeit in scarce quantities) within iron-nickel meteorites.
Fig.6 Meteorite Market
|Albareto L4 Chondrite||Bilanga, Achondrite (diogenite)||Clovis #2 L6 Chondrite||Dar al Gani 749 CO3||El Kachla Impact melted chondrite||Gold Basin, Chondrite (L4)||Juvinas Eucrite achondrite||Monze L6 Chondrite||NWA 801 CR2 Chondrite||Plainview H5 Chondrite||Sikhote-Alin, Iron Individuals(Ogg)||Thuathe H4/5 Chondrite|
|Alfianello L6 Chondrite||Boguslavka Hexahedrite||Dalgety Downs , Chondrite (L4||Dar al Gani 779 Howardite Achondrite||Estherville Mesosiderite||Gujba Bencubbinite||Kabo H4 Chondrite||Mt. Egerton aubrite achondrite||NWA 869 Brecciated Chondrite||Portales Valley H6 Chondrite||Steinbach IVA Iron||Toluca IAB Iron|
|Allende, Chondrite (CV3)||Boxhole IIIAB Iron||Dar al Gani 319 Polymict Ureilite||Dhofar 018 Howardite Achondrite||Etter, Chondrite (H6)||HaH237 CH Chondrite||Kilabo LL6||Mundrabilla, Iron (Of, IRAN)||NWA 987 L3.8 Chondrite||Pultusk H5 Chondrite||Suizhou L6 Chondrite||Tsarev H5 Chondrite|
|Barwise H5 Chondrite||Brenham Pallasite||Dar al Gani 380 Eucrite achondrite||Dhofar 125 Acapulcoite achondrite||Floyd L4 Chondrite||Hardtner L6 Chondrite||Korra Korrabes H3 Chondrite||Murchison, Chondrite (CM2)||NWA 1068 Martian Basalt||Rammya H5 impact melt||Sutton H5 Chondrite||Udei Station, Silicated Iron|
|Begaa LL3 Chondrite||Brahin Pallasite||Dar al Gani 391 Eucrite achondrite||Dhofar 132 Ureilite achondrite||Gao/Gueine H5 Chondrite||Henbury, Iron (Om)||Lone Star H4 Chondrite||Northbranch, Chondrite (H5)||NWA 1109 Eucrite achondrite||Sahara 97103, Enstatite Chondrite (EH3)||Tafassasset Brachinite-like achondrite||Uwet, Hexahedrite|
|Bensour LL6 Chondrite||Bur-Abor, Iron (Om)||Dar al Gani 400 Lunar||Dhofar 207 H3.4/3.5 chondrite||Gao-Guenie (b) CR Carbonaceous Chondrite||Hope Creek LL6 Chondrite||Loop (a) L6 Chondrite||NWA 060 CK5||NWA 1242 Mesosiderite||Sahara 99555, Angrite||Tagish Lake (CI2?)||Vaca Muerta Mesosiderite|
|Béréba Eucrite achondrite||Campo del Cielo Iron (Og)||Dar al Gani 412 CK5||Dimmitt, Chondrite (H4)||Ghubara, Chondrite (L5)||Hunter LL5 Chondrite||Mayfield H5 Chondrite||NWA 479 Lunar||NWA1465 C3 Chondrite||Saratov, Chondrite (L4)||Tambo Quemada IIIAB Iron||Wabar IIIAB Iron|
|Canyon Diablo, Iron (Og)||Dar al Gani 475 H3.4 Chondrite||Dresden H5 Chondrite||Gibeon Iron (etched slices)||Igdi Eucrite||Miles iron with silicate||NWA 530 CR2 chondrite||NWA1882 Mesosiderite||SAU 005/008 (Martian Basalt)||Tatahouine, Achondrite (Diogenite)||Wellman (f) H3.5 Chondrite|
|Cape York, Iron (Om)||Dar al Gani 476 (Martian Basalt)||El Gouanem Ureilite Achondrite||Gibeon whole irons||Imilac, Pallasite||Millbillillie, Achondrite (Eucrite)||NWA 725 Acapulcoite achondrite||Odessa, Iron (Og)||Seymchan Pallasite IIE||Taza Plessitic Octahedrite||Yorktown H5 Chondrite|
|Chinga, Ataxite Iron||Dar al Gani 477 L6 Chondrite||El Hammami, Chondrite (H5)||Gobabeb H4 Chondrite||Jilin, Chondrite (H6)||Mont Dieu, Iron II Of||NWA 753 Rumuruti Chondrite||Park Forest L5 Chondrite||Sikhote-Alin, Iron Fragments (Ogg)||Tishomingo Ataxite||Zag, Morocco,
Fig 7: Silverpit Crater, North Sea, East of England
Our next crater of interest is the Silverpit
Crater, 80 miles east of the Yorkshire, England coast in the North Sea.
While this crater lies on a chalk layer, again the crater is manifested by the standard shock geology, cohesite or stishovite
presence, shattercones, raised rims or central emergence, circular structure, broken brecciated rocks, impact glass or
impactites and meteorite oxides. Consider the similarities of this far-side Lunar crater below.
Fig.8 Lunar crater Mare Orientale
This crater is 12 miles (20 km) wide, with
some 9-10 concentric rings stretching from the central peak out almost
The central bowl shaped crater is about 2 miles (3 km) and buried under shale & sandstone sediment almost a kilometer
deep and at the bottom of a 130-foot-deep sea. The impactor is estimated to have been a 7 million-ton, 120m-wide object
which struck the earth at 20km/s. Its location was theoretically suggested by statistical prognostication. To further prove
that craters with these characteristics are impact origin regardless of the planet/moon they hit. Silverpit looks almost
exactly like the Lunar crater Mare Orientale & the Valhalla crater on Jupiter's moon Callisto, there are similar craters on
Europa, which are on NASA's website in public domain.
Fig 9: Valhalla on Callisto
Notice the concentric rings on all three
of these craters. There is some debate about the impact origin of
crater, cast by Christian Koeberl, a geochemist at the University of Vienna in Austria, when he wrote in the journal Nature
that Silverpit may be a sinkhole depression caused by salt withdrawal.
Back to Earth: Shiva Crater- India & Small Point - NE U.S. Atlantic Ocean
Sankar Chatterjee, the primary investigator,
a paleontologist at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, says The Shiva Complex
is a large 600 by 400 kilometers teardrop shaped (because the impactor struck the Earth at a low angle) underwater crater,
off the western coast of India, and was made by an enormous impactor measuring 40 kilometers across.
Fig 10: Diagram of Shiva impact area. Credit: Sankar Chatterjee.
From the synopsis of Chatterjee’s paper
he reinforces the theory that, "Evidence is accumulating that there were
impacts across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary such as the Chicxulub crater in Mexico, Boltysh crater in Ukraine, Silverpit
crater in North Sea, and the Shiva crater offshore western India."
Many of these structures are some of the best hydrocarbon producing sites in the world. Shiva is one of them.
Its morphology is much the same as the previous craters, concentric geophysical rings, a collapsed outer rim, an underwater
central spire as high as Mount Everest, dated as 65 million years old. The central uplift called, Bombay High, has veins of
pseudotachylite (formed largely by frictional melting along faults where rocks moved at or after an impact event) and a core
of Neoproterozoic granite (938±13 Ma) that rebounded upward for more than 5 km.
The age of the crater is inferred from its a 500,000 mile2 brecciated lava Deccan Traps, which encase alkaline igneous rock
spires, rich in Iridium. Paleocene sediments, isotopic dating ejecta melt, the magnetic anomaly of the Carlsberg Ridge, seismic
reflection, and structural and drill core data all indicate the possible impact origin of the Shiva structure. Siderophile ("iron-loving")
elements & rock type are, iridium-rich alkaline melt rocks, shocked quartz, Ni-rich spinels (MgAl2O4, Magnesium Aluminum Oxide),
Ni-rich vesicular glass, sanidine, a polymorph of Potassium Aluminum Silicate KAlSi3O8, spherules, fullerenes (C60-Buckyballs),
glass-altered smectites (refers to a family of non-metallic clays primarily composed of hydrated sodium calcium aluminum silicate,
bentonite), and tsunami deposits. And finally the K-T clay boundary layer in India is one meter thick- the thickest in the world.
At the time of the K-T extinction, India
was an island located over the Reunion hotspot. The impact was so intense
that it sheared
and deformed the lithospheric mantle across western India, contributed to major plate reorganization in the northwestern Indian
Ocean. As well as displaced the Carlsberg Ridge 500-km, which initiated rifting between India and Seychelles Islands. The oblique
impact may have generated spreading asymmetry, possibly linked to the sudden northward acceleration of the Indian plate in Early
Tertiary. Oil companies and the Indian government control the site where Shiva is located, and access is extremely limited, so far,
the Shiva crater is still a non-peer reviewed hypothesis, but suggests some very tasty hypotheses.
Fig 11: Small Point, Maine, cropped
to the center of the Small Point Crater off Maine & Mass.
The Small Point Investigation is on a structure
off the coast of Maine. There is evidence implying a large impact crater
Gulf of Maine. Its most probable age is K-T boundary, but it lacks definitive ages from impact materials. Regional apatite-
Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) fission track data, which indicate a temperature above 110*C F and show a reheating event probably beginning
in the late Cretaceous. The most distinctive features of the Small Point crater are its topographic and magnetic expressions.
"Now researchers are looking at another location off the coast of Maine, near Small Point, where there is evidence of another
impact. It could well be that the dinosaur killing asteroid was not alone when it slammed into the Earth." (H)
Two scientists, Dominic Manzer, an engineer
from NASA, and Dallas Abbott from the Earth Observatory at Columbia University,
are in preliminary stages of looking at this event. As yet they have not found strong evidence to support their theory. Manzer
and Abbott presented their initial findings on what they are calling the Small Point crater in 2004 at a regional meeting of the
Geological Society of America in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
The two were studying the magnetism of
the crust around the Gulf of Maine when they noticed an anomaly. They detected
very large, and as yet, unexplainable, difference in the magnetism of the crust from the Gulf area from that of the surrounding
areas. Additionally, there is an arrangement of ridges on land that channels rivers and streams in Maine and Massachusetts along
arcs that might be ridges of the western part of an eroded crater.
David Kring of the Lunar and Planetary
Laboratory at the University of Arizona is pessimistic and sees no conclusive
of an impact. If Manzer and Abbott are correct, this crater is larger than Chicxulub. They are trying to determine the age
of the crater, but the erosional effects of ice ages have erased much of that evidence. Slim though any evidence might be,
Abbott is not giving up any time soon. Rather, she intends to look further south in the Martha's Vineyard area off Cape Cod.
There, she is hoping to find impact related rocks of the right age that might have been deposited after the glaciers retreated.
Menzer believes the possible scenario of
the event 65 million years ago was that the asteroid or comet broke up
hitting Earth and pieces of the larger body slammed down in a rapid fire line of craters. The two scientists will search for
evidence this summer, to prove it was an impact event. Rock layers can then be used to age just when the impact happened. (I)
The Chicxulub Crater
The image below displays a striking semicircular alignment or Cenote Ring around southern hemisphere of the crater.
This was realized through information gathered due to oil research drilling in the area by PEMEX geophysicists Antonio
Carmargo-Zanoguera and Glen Penfield. There is a huge amount of information on the net for this site, so I will not
elaborate deeply. An excellent new poster from a very long Dutch evolution blog page, including new anthropological fossils.
Fig 12: A gravity map of The Chicxulub crater in Yucatan, Mexico.
The white dots are Cenotes (Maya word dzonot)
or limestone sinkholes. Notice the highlighted semicircleat the southern
ring of the crater. Further digs proved that trees were flattened up to a 1000 km. away and the impact was partially in a shallow
sea so there were tsunamis which radiated across the Gulf of Mexico. Compare this to the 1908 Tunguska event where trees
were only flattened out to 40 - 45 km (2150km2). And sent its shock wave TWICE around the world!
Tugunska Airburst- Siberia, Russia- June 30, 1908, 7:14 a.m. (DTT)
Fig. 13 Recent scare- but just a little small
...to cause a global extinction event, but still what should be a major wake-up call to GEE's in the future.
A very recent (Oct.2010) ground penetrating
RADAR resurvey of the area by Vladimir Alexeev with Troitsk Innovation
Nuclear Research Institute (TRINITY) has turned up a potential lake-filled crater (Lake Cheko- 60° 53' 09"; N, 101° 53' 40"; E,),
near the Kimchu River, for this impactor. Although options are still mixed and undecided, there are only about the a 'kajillion'
theories to the cause. Some more improbable, than the adjective I just used.
If this hypothesis is discovered to be probable or true, then it proves the object did hit the surface of the Earth and it most
likely was not a 'ice and gravel' comet, but a small asteroid, probably (I predict) stony, since small percentage of particles
found in the area have been iron-nickel.
There has been some very extensive sampling by researchers since the 1927 expedition. A 1994 paper by Italian researchers,
Longo, G.; Serra R., Cecchini S. and Galli M, searched 71 resin samples from impacted Siberian Spruce trees and found 28
elements in the microremenants. HIgher percentage of these are, Fe, Ca, Al, Si, Au, Cu, S, Zn, Cr, Ba, Ti, Ni, C and O. Of the
some 7163 particles found, about 450 were Z>20, (Fe=22) or ~6%. That composition could indicate it was a very common LL or
L chondrite asteroid (my prediction), and in a time range of only 1904-1910, with no volcanic particles during these times and
a obvious peak at 1908, leading to the prediction that the impactor was most likely a stony asteroid and not a comet.
The best available data on these craters
(except Chesapeake) lump these events into a relatively short time frame
terms about 100,000 -300,000 years. If further research is done, it is found that there are at least 5 times in the past multiple
major impactors have collided with the earth and done global catastrophic damage, both to biodiversity and geological structures.
This occurrence tends to dovetail an astrophysical theory which states the solar system traveles through sparse & dense areas
of local galactic spiral arms/branches. This in effect causes perturbation of ‘comets’ in the Oort Belt and recently discovered
Kuiper Belt, which contain estimated millions of comet/asteroid sized bodies from the size of basketballs to large mountains.
After a million year trip past Jupiter, to
be possibly perturbated and torn apart like the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet
(on it’s previous
pass near Jupiter before it collided with the same planet in 1994) and inward to our Sun, there is a chance for them to collide with
Earth. If an object is large enough it will leave eon old evidence for geologists to discover. Current high demand for hydrocarbon
based energy has oil companies world-wide searching for particular structures which hold gas and oil. In each of the K/T craters
discussed above, many of these conditions are met and gas and oil are being successfully extracted.
Certainly in the form of global extinction
events, the effects of large impactors on humans has been negligible, so
far. But the
result of these collisions to the energy demands of a growing populous of ever increasing complexity, could mean increased
discovery of energy resources. If exploration companies would correlate their efforts in the area of the 180 or so large impact
craters, along with their current exploration projects using geological and magnetic mapping, field surveys and data from Earth
Resource Satellites, further unknown craters large enough to cause the aforementioned morphology and conducive to pooling of
gas and oil, there is a potential for major discoveries. If we can do it before the ‘next one’ hits.
Fig 1: Post-impacts,
polar orthographic mosaic of Jupiter in 2.0 micron infrared by the
5-m Hale Telescope at Mt. Palomar, July 1994 (Cornell University/Caltech/Air & Space Museum).
Fig 2: Wikipedia The 24Km Boltysh Crater in the Ukraine, near Kiev was discovered during oil prospecting.
Fig 3: Geological
Survey of Canada 1992 Outcrop of strata crossing the Cretaceous-
Tertiary (K/T) boundary at Brazos River, Falls County, Texas By Alan Hildebrand,
Chesapeake Bay Bolide homepage.
Maintained by firstname.lastname@example.org
Fig 5: A 0.32mm
shocked quartz grain from intracrater breccia sample Y6 N14 of the
Chicxulub crater located. (Taken in cross-polarized light by Alan Hildebrand)
Fig 6: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Meteorites- 2002 O. Richard Norton Meteorite Market
Fig 7: BBC
News Friday, 18 March, 2005, 12:05 GMT North Sea crater
shows its scars
By Jonathan Amos BBC News science reporter
Fig 8: Mare Orientale Credit: NASA, Lunar Orbiter 4 http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/lunarorb.html
of the Day
2002 November 23
Looking like a target ring bull's-eye, the Mare Orientale is one of the most striking large scale lunar features. Located
on the Moon's extreme western edge, this impact basin is unfortunately difficult to see from an earthbound perspective.
It is over 3 billion years old, about 600 miles across and was formed by the impact of an asteroid sized object. The collision
caused ripples in the lunar crust resulting in the three concentric circular features visible in this 1967 photograph made by
NASA's Lunar Orbiter 4. Molten lava from the Moon's interior flooded the impact site through the fractured crust creating
Fig 9: Valhalla
Carter on Callisto From Voyager Taken: 1979-03-06
Fig 10: 2003
Seattle Annual Meeting (November 2–5, 2003) Paper No. 60-8
Presentation Time: 9:45 AM-10:00 AM
THE SHIVA CRATER: IMPLICATIONS FOR DECCAN VOLCANISM, INDIA-SEYCHELLES RIFTING, DINOSAUR EXTINCTION,
AND PETROLEUM ENTRAPMENT AT THE KT BOUNDARY
CHATTERJEE, Sankar(1), BOUNDARY GUVEN, Necip2, YOSHINOBU, Aaaron(2), and DONOFRIO, Richard (3),
(1) Geosciences, Texas Tech Univ, MS Box 41053, Lubbock, TX 79409-3191, email@example.com,
(2) Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech Univ, Lubbock, TX 79409-1053,
(3) Exploration and Development Geosciences, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73069
Fig 12: Geological
Survey of Canada. The Chicxulub crater in Yucatan, with highlighted semicircle
of Cenotes or limestone sinkhole which border the southern outer ring of the crater.
Fig 11: The
Magnetic Field over Small Point, Maine
Possible Second Crater Linked to Dinosaur Extinction
From NASA Scientific Vis. Studio: Copyright © 1995 - 2004
Submit a comment or teaching tip North American Magnetic Anomaly
Group (NAMAG) scale 1:5000 compilation and geologic mapping
applications of the new digital magnetic anomaly database and map
of North America Geol. Soc. Am.
Kathy Miles, Author, and Chuck Peters, Systems Administrator
The direction of imapct by the Tungunska 'Bolide' of 1908 (text embedded
Russian 2010 article Scientific American 2008 article (8 page .pdf)
IMPACT Shiva: Another K-T Impact?
by Leslie Mullen for Astrobiology Magazine Moffett Field CA (SPX) Nov 04, 2004
Second Crater Linked to Dinosaur Extinction
I: Kathy Miles,
Author, and Chuck Peters, Systems Administrator
firstname.lastname@example.org More Asteroid Info? . .
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