is a short article about a great astronomical observers of the 19th-20th
on 03/31/2005, 12:58:00, by Thomas J. Teters (Astro101_FRCC)
The Man- Edward Emerson Barnard
Young E. E.
E.E. at Lick
#3 E.E. at Yerkes
Born, December 16, 1857 in Nashville, Tenn., to
a life of poverty and hardship. His father died before he was born. .
young years he experienced the Civil War, and survived a cholera attack.
With his mother having to support herself
her two sons. He spent only two months of his early life in school, receiving
all of his education from his mother.
to help support her, Barnard took a job in Nashville at a photography gallery
when he was nine years old!
charge of the solar enlarger, a device that tracked the sun to make photographic
prints, he became an expert
in wide-field photography.
Barnard's first telescope was a 1” simple lens in a cardboard tube made
for him by one of his coworkers from the small
of a broken spyglass found in the street. With it he began observing the
stars, but was unable to identify any
them. In exchange for a favor, a friend gave him a copy of Thomas Dick's
book, the Practical Astronomer, in 1876.
purchased a 5-inch refracting telescope, ‘with a proper mounting in 1877
from John Byrne of New York for $380,
of his annual earnings, and did extensive reading on astronomy. Finding
a star map in the book, Barnard was
to learn the conventional names of the objects with which he was already
so familiar. In January, 1881, still employed
the photo studio, he married Rhoda Calvert, an England-born lady whom he
knew from his work in the studio. From these
beginnings, his skill with the telescope and his keen eyesight combined
to make him the greatest astronomical
of the time, some say of all times (Brahe?)
When a scientific meeting was held in Nashville in 1887, Barnard met Simon
Newcomb, the dean of American astronomers &
first recipient of the Bruce Award. Newcomb, an expert in celestial mechanics,
advised the eager young man to improve
mathematical skills and search for comets. With the help of a tutor, and
sheer hard work, he overcame the handicaps of
impoverished family life and virtually no formal education.
Taking Newcomb’s advice to heart, Barnard came to prominence as an astronomer
through the discovery of numerous comet(16).
the 1880s, a wealthy patron of astronomy in Rochester, New York, awarded
$200 each time a new comet was found.
discovered (?)eight comets, earning enough to build a "Comet House" for
his bride. His discoveries brought him to
attention of other amateur astronomers in Nashville who raised enough money
to earn Barnard a fellowship to Vanderbilt
On May 12, 1881, Barnard discovered his first comet, which however he did
not announce. He found his second
on September 17 of the same year, and another one on September 13, 1882.
Barnard graduated from Vanderbilt Univ., 1887. From 1887 to 1895 he was
astronomer at (James) Lick Observatory located in
Diablo Range east of San Jose, California, site of the 36-inch refracting
telescope using a Alvan Clark lens, one of the
lens makers of all time, completed in 1888. One of his greatest achievement
was the introduction of wide-field photographic
when in 1889 he began to photograph the Milky Way with large-aperture
lenses, revealing exciting new detail and gave
a better understanding the internal structure of the Milky Way.
His achievements at Lick included pioneering celestial photography, discovering
16 comets, the first photographic
of a comet, the gegenschein, he discovered Amalthea, Jupiter's fifth satellite
1895 as professor of practical astronomy at the Univ. of Chicago and astronomer
at the not-yet-completed Yerkes Observatory
helped to test the great 40-inch (the largest lens in the world) refractor
following its installation.
On May 29, 1897, Barnard narrowly escaped death when, just hours
after he had left the observatory’s dome, the 37-ton elevating floor,
to lift observers to the level of the telescope’s eyepiece, collapsed after
a supporting cable broke.
1916, he discovered the star with the largest proper motion, a 9.5 magnitude
star known as Munich 15040 or LFT 1385 in Ophiuchus,
then on known as Barnard's Runaway Star or just Barnard’s Star.
Barnard spent 28 years as an astronomer at Yerkes , using the giant
refractor as well as the 10-inch Bruce wide-field telescope,
specially for him, to measure star positions and to pioneer wide-field
photography. He made many studies, both visual and photographic
comets, planets, numerous dark nebulae, globular clusters. These discoveries
made Barnard internationally famous and attested to
exceptional observational and photographic ability.
Barnard also played a prominent role, at the turn of the twentieth century,
in denouncing the existence of Martian canals and insisting t
they could be broken down into more diffuse detail. Much to
Sir Percival Lovell’s disgust.
His Photographic Atlas of Selected Regions of the Milky Way, published
posthumously in 1927, identifies 349 dark nebulae north of
-35° that are still known by their Barnard (B) numbers.
Edward Emerson Bernard died 6 February 1923 at William’s Bay, Wisconsin.
Academy of Sciences, Lalande (1892), Arago (1893), and Janssen (1900) Gold
Astronomical Society, Gold medal, 1897, pres. by A. A. Common, MNRAS 57,
of Bruce medal (Bonn, Ger.) presented by Townley, Sidney D., PASP 29, 77-87
crater Barnard (29.5S, 85.6E, 105.0 km diameter) in 1964
crater Barnard (61.4S, 298.4W, 125.0 km) in 1973
Regio, a region on Ganymede (0.8N, 1.0W, 2547 km)
Planet #819 Barnardiana, discovered on March 3, 1916 by Max Wolf
provisionally designated 1916 ZA later it had been assigned A904 SC, 1930
QX, and 1955 EB
Hall at Vanderbilt University
S.W., “Early Life of E.E. Barnard,” Popular Astronomy 1, 193-195; 341-345;
Walter, The Challenge of Handicap; How Four Tennesseans Met the Dare and
Won, (Walter Chandler, Nashville, TN, 1964).
Edwin B., Scientific Memoirs of the National Academy of Science 21 (14)
Robert H.,The Early Life of E.E. Barnard,” Leaflets of the Astronomical
Society of the Pacific 9,
113-20 (1964) [Leaflet #415] and 121-28 (1964) [Leaflet #416].
Robert H., Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1, 463-67.
Robert S., The Star Lovers (Macmillan, NY, 1967).
William, The Immortal Fire within: the Life and Work of Edward Emerson
Barnard (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995).
Joseph S., “Edward E. Barnard: The Fourteenth Bruce Medalist,” Mercury
21, 5, 164 (1992).
Virtual Museum, Edward Emerson Barnard.
1: Mary Lea Shane Archives, Lick Observatory
Florence M. Kelleher Yerkes Observatory Virtual Museum
Florence M. Kelleher Yerkes Observatory Virtual Museum
4: Barnard at Lick observatory, leaning on the 36” telescope.
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2005, Columbia
G. S. "The Legacy of E. E. Barnard." Sky & Telescope, 30-34, July 1987.
W. The Immortal Fire Within: The Life and Work of Edward Emerson Barnard.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
W. and Briggs, J. W. "E. E. Barnard and the 1889 Eclipse of Iapetus." Sky
& Telescope, 38-41, Feb. 1996.
E.E., 1916. A small star with large proper-motion. Astronomical Journal,
vol. 29, iss. 695, p. 181-183 (07/1916).
patron of astronomy Rochester, New York, $200 new comet found
Measures of Star Clusters,? by Barnard. (Publications of the Yerkes Observatory,
Legacy of E. E. Barnard,? George S. Mumford, Sky And Telescope, July, 1987.
Lea Shane Archives of the Lick Observatory- http://libweb.ucsc.edu/lick/Search.html
Using the parameters “Barnard”& “1916”-“2005”, will output 25 E.E.
the purchase & construction of the “Bruce” telescope. http://astro.uchicago.edu/yerkes/virtualmuseum/Bruce.html
Glyn Jones, 1991. Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters. 2nd ed, Cambridge
University Press, p. 312-3.
Award Speech http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/PASP./0029//0000078.000.html